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Adolescent Psychological Development: Rationality, Morality, by David Moshman

By David Moshman

The large and fractured literature on early life demanding situations either scholars and students. for college kids there's an excessive amount of to benefit and too little coherence throughout themes to permit deeper figuring out. For students, there are few integrative visions to attach minitheories, examine courses, and sensible matters. within the first variation of this complex textual content, Moshman supplied a constructivist synthesis of the literatures of cognitive, ethical, and id improvement, from the vintage universalist theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson during the extra pluralist examine and theorizing of the past due twentieth century. with out assuming any previous wisdom of psychology, he brought and coordinated simple strategies to let scholars to combat with the questions of outrage to specialists and support specialists see these issues from a bigger standpoint. during this completely up-to-date moment version, Moshman develops his conceptualization of complex mental improvement in formative years and early maturity and proposes--in a brand new chapter--a belief of rational ethical identification as a developmental excellent. not like the prototypical adjustments of early early life, complicated mental improvement can't be understood as development via common phases to a universally accomplished kingdom of adulthood. growth is feasible, notwithstanding, via rational approaches of mirrored image, coordination, and social interplay.

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Extra resources for Adolescent Psychological Development: Rationality, Morality, and Identity

Example text

The intent was to see whether they could systematically distinguish valid arguments, in which the conclusion follows logically from the premises, from invalid arguments, in which it does not. This required hypothetico-deductive reasoning in that validity did not always correspond to truth. Recall, for example, the two ar­ guments presented a couple of pages back: Elephants are bigger than mice. Dogs are bigger than mice. Therefore, elephants are bigger than dogs. Mice are bigger than dogs. Dogs are bigger than elephants.

In this chapter we consider the scope of human rationality, ranging across the cognitive and developmental literatures on postformal reasoning, scientific 16 THE NATURE OF RATIONALITY 17_ reasoning, and other kinds of thinking. The resulting picture of advanced ra­ tionality is complex and multifaceted. One common theme, however, is that advanced thinking and reasoning involve advanced forms of what psycholo­ gists call metacognition. I suggest, in the latter part of this chapter, that what lies at the core of advanced cognitive development is the development of conceptual knowledge about the nature and justification of knowledge and reasoning and increasingly deliberate control over one's own inferential processes.

EPISTEMIC COGNITION The development of rationality, as suggested in the previous section, is in large part the development of metacognition, including increasing aware­ ness and control of one's various beliefs and inferential processes, and an emerging understanding of others as cognitive agents. A vital aspect of metacognitive development, we will now see, is the development of epistemic cognition—knowledge about the fundamental nature and justifi­ ability of knowledge and inference. I begin with the development of knowl­ edge about logic and then turn to research and theory on epistemic cognition in its most general sense.

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