By Ruth Singer
The use of grammatical gender within the Australian language Mawng calls into query triumphing principles concerning the services of nominal class structures. Mawng’s gender process has a robust semantic foundation and performs an enormous function within the development of which means in discourse. Gender contract in verbs is often lexicalized, growing idioms referred to as lexicalised contract verbs which are structurally just like noun-verb idioms. This publication can be of curiosity to somebody drawn to nominal class or cross-linguistic ways to idioms.
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Extra resources for Agreement in Mawng: productive and lexicalised uses of agreement in an Australian language
Not all possible forms have been recorded and it is not clear how some, such as ngatpaka - a distal form of a first person exclusive demonstrative - would be used. There is another rare demonstrative that has been recorded only recently. It is the third person dual demonstrative takayawu in (2-45). (2-45) Takayawu, k-a-mi-n k-aw-ukunjili-n. dual PR-3pl-do-NP PR-3pl-exchange-NP Those two, they exchanged (something). 7 Pronouns The three types of pronoun found in Mawng are listed in Table 11. ex ngarri 2sg nuyi 2pl nuwurri 3MA yanat 3FE inyanat 3LL anyanat 3VE manat 3ED atjanat 3pl wenat Contrastive person, number and gender plus CONTR ngapimung ngarrurrimung ngarrimung nuyimung nuwurrimung yamin inyamin anyamin mamin atjamin wemin Oblique person, number and gender plus OBL ngartu(k) ngarrurru ngarru nuwu nuwurru nuyu ngaw -wu ~ -pu Cardinal and contrastive pronouns can function as NPs on their own.
LL-EMPH1 a-wani-ng 3pl-sit-PC pata arrarrkpi PL man la warramumpik ta CONJ woman LL wularrut. ago People lived there long ago. ex-go1-NP-EMPH1 ta LL Saturday Eng ngarr-ura-n. ex-go1-PP We went on Saturday. HH Text 1: 17 However adverbs are never arguments and thus the use of the Land gender article ta is the main evidence that they are nominals41. The form ta functions as the article for two genders: Land gender and Edible gender, but the common semantic extension from space to time suggests that the article found with adverbs is more likely to be Land gender than Edible gender42.
OBL 3MA/3MA-eat-PC They threw it to him and he ate it. 2). 4)27. The distal Masculine demonstrative naka has a special grammaticalised use in discourse. In this function, it occurs at the beginning of a clause and indicates that there is some type of logical relation between that clause and another clause. This function is clearest when there is no Masculine referent in the clause which the demonstrative could potentially refer to. In examples (2-37) a-b, the demonstrative naka-pa highlights a logical link between the clause it appears in and the previous clause, which is also given in the example.