By I. Arnon Ing. Agr., Ph.D. (auth.)
Agricultural learn was once most likely the 1st and is the main common type of organised learn on this planet, and one within which either the main built and underdeveloped international locations are engaged. while such a lot varieties of examine task, akin to within the box of medication, have global broad software, agricultural examine, through its very nature, needs to be nearby; essentially no examine discovering could be followed with no learning the result of its program below the endless variety of ecological events with which the farmers of the area are confronted. the advance of agricultural creation is the basic first step wherein constructing nations can desire to elevate their way of life. learn is for that reason an task during which no underdeveloped state can manage to pay for to not have interaction; nor can international locations during which agriculture has reached a excessive point of improvement and class find the money for to forget agricultural study. it's not due to inertia or vested pursuits that hugely industrialised nations hold, usually at public fee, a expensive and complicated infrastructure for agricultural examine. even if difficulties of overproduction weigh seriously at the financial system, agricultural learn is taken into account the fundamental key to extra development: the ambitions and pursuits are easily replaced and tailored to the desires of the economy.
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1988, pers. ): • Research workers participate in training courses for farmers. • On-farm trials and pilot farms for integrated techniques. • Research workers provide expert consultations when the extension workers cannot solve a specific problem. National agricultural research systems: case histories 39 • Farmers can influence the research programmes through their representatives on the Committee for Agronomic Research Stations. , 1988, pers. ) Crop varieties have become more resistant to diseases; new crops have been introduced, such as triticale; the production of pulses, such as horse-beans, peas and soya, has been expanded; the insecticides used are more specific and less persistent; bio-technological control of plant pests and diseases is in wide use; the quantity of insecticides in viticulture and fruit production has been reduced by half; preventive control is no longer practised.
A heated debate followed the publication of what one eminent research worker called the 'infamous report'. In this debate three things were confused, according to Ulbricht (1977): (a) whether scientists financed by government should be accountable for what they do and have a responsibility to meet the needs of the country; (b) the application of the customer-contractor principle as a particular means of achieving the accountability; (c) the wider issue of science policy: how can scientists through their research help to meet their country's needs when the government has no clearly defined long-term policy.
There are departments for Natural Resources and Landscape Management, Plant Production, Animal Production, Processing and Marketing, Agriculture and Society. (b) Programme Advisory Committee: Professional farmers' organisations have established commodity committees which collate and integrate the problems and requests of the farming community, and thereby influence the choice of research projects. Extension workers, agricultural entrepreneurs and researchers participate in this work. (c) Co-ordination Committees consider research priorities and propose to whom the projects should be assigned.