By Milton Van Dyke
Over four hundred attractive black-and-white images, accumulated from all over the world, illustrate the good variety of fluid movement. Flows starting from creeping to hypersonic speeds, in either the laboratory and Nature, are saw without delay, or made noticeable utilizing smoke, ink, bubbles, debris, shadographs, schlieren, interferometry, and different ideas. Succinct captions describe the basic positive factors of every stream.
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Extra info for Album of Fluid Motion
The absence of large absorbent particles combined with a reasonably long contact time for the circulating solids gives close to complete combustion of coal plus very low N O x and S O x emissions. Plants using this concept were commercialized in the early 1980s by Lurgi and Ahlstrom. 5-1000 MW), operating at atmospheric and high pressure, that are being developed and commercialized today. The various symposia on FBC held each year, with proceedings running well over a thousand pages, show the interest in this difficult emerging technology.
For 80% removal of sulfur compounds, a C a : S ratio > 2 is needed. Pore plugging of the CaO particles is the main reason for the low sulfur capture. In addition to SOx control, fluidized bed combustion significantly reduces N O x emission. In place of heat exchange tubes, the bed temperature can be controlled by the recirculation of bed solids. Figure 17(b) illustrates this concept. Here, a mixed feed of coal and absorbent solids of wide size distribution, but with no coarse material, is fed to the bed in far fewer feed tubes than in the design of Fig.
Because of the giant scale and the worldwide importance of F C C operations, continual efforts are being made to improve these processes. Gasoline from Natural and Synthesis Gases In the mid-1940s, vigorous attempts were made in the United States to use the fluidized bed for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The driving force for these efforts was the desire to produce high-grade gasoline from cheap and plentiful natural gas. Based on the low cost of natural gas at that time and on the results of laboratory experiments that gave almost 90% conversion, Hydrocarbon Corporation constructed their dense-phase fluidized bed reactor, the Hydrocol unit, at Carthage, Texas.