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Bioceramics: Materials and Applications IV, Volume 147

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The surface morphology (Fig. 5 and 1 h) indicate that the fine particles are actually rod-shaped crystals with their c-axis oriented parallel to the substrate surface. 5 h, the 40 Bioceramics: Materials and Applications IV fine crystals are 30-40 nm wide and 150-300 nm long. In the case of the coating deposited for 1 h, some new crystals were observed to form on the crystals oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The formation of these new crystals may represent the initial stage of the process that would eventually produce the rodshaped crystals with a preferred alignment perpendicular to the substrate surface (Fig.

Figure 5b shows a clear pattern of 8x10 array of "diamonds". It should be noted that scattered large crystals were also observed. These big crystals, identified as brushite, formed at later stages and can be avoided by reducing the electrolyte concentration or electrolysis time. Results presented in this paper represent our work at earlier stages and uniform patterns without these "impurities" have been achieved recently and will be reported in a separate report. The patterns shown in Figures 4 and 5 are large because of the coarse photomask designed for cell surface interactions.

NTI Fig. 3. 5. * O / 5- / 0- () *' 1 s' / / / ,' / 2 3 Time (hour) 4 1 1 5 Fig. 4. 5. Under the same conditions used for the rapid deposition of hydroxyapatite coatings on 45S5 glass, no coating was observed on substrates of fused S1O2 glass or polycrystalline AI2O3. It has been suggested that the nucleation of hydroxyapatite starts with the adhesion of Ca2+ ions on to negatively-charged surfaces [10], implying that a negative surface charge is favorable for coating formation. 5, the surfaces of the S1O2 glass and AI2O3 are expected to have a negative charge.

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