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Biochemistry of Copper by Maria C. Linder

By Maria C. Linder

Copper has lengthy been referred to as necessary to dwelling structures, partially via its primary position in electron shipping and breathing. through the years into the current, its involvement in an ever expanding variety of methods in every kind of organisms has turn into obvious, and new and fascinating vistas of its roles in such components because the primary frightened approach, and in humoral features, are showing at the horizon. even though the biochemistry of this aspect has no longer been studied approximately up to that of many others, a for­ midable volume of labor has been performed. It has hence been a problem to supply a precis of what has been came upon that offers either breadth and intensity. My target has been to attempt to be as accomplished as attainable, inside of a few obstacles. i've got attempted to supply simple info and easy information that are meant to remain invaluable for a very long time. The objective has additionally been to interpret the place we at the moment stand in our wisdom of the constitution, functionality, rules, and metabolism of Cu-dependent approaches and sub­ stances, specially proteins. therefore, i've got attempted to make this a resource publication for ancient in addition to present details on all features of copper bio­ chemistry, and a precis of our present wisdom of copper-dependent proteins and techniques. lots of the study on copper has been conducted on vertebrates, particularly mammals. This has performed a task within the association of the book.

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1984, 1986b,c, 1989), in which fructose- (or sucrose-) containing diets were shown to enhance development of copper deficiency more than starch-containing diets. Again, no clear-cut direct effect of fructose on intestinal copper uptake was observed, as monitored acutely or over the long term. Uptake of 67Cu (intubated into the stomach in conjunction with the diet) was no different for the various diets from 2 or 8 to 96 h (5 rats per dietary group). Uptake of 64Cu by in situ ligated duodenal loops was also unaffected when NaCl was present.

4 Endogenous Factors Regulating Copper Absorption Some of the potential endogenous factors (or physiological states) regulating overall intestinal copper absorption have already been described or alluded to, including metallothionein, tumors, estrogen, and genetic traits inherent in Menkes' disease patients and mutant mice. A fuller listing is given in Table 2-10. A need for increased copper within the body, either to alleviate a tissue deficiency or to provide the element for tissue growth (in the newborn and young), would appear to be reflected in an increased capacity for overall absorption, as an inherent property of the intestine (as 35 Absorption of Copper from the Digestive Tract Table 2-1 0.

In these studies, ligated intestinal segments of rat duodenum, in vivo, were administered 1 Jlg of copper [as 67Cu(II)-NTA] with or without 1 mg of ascorbate. Uptake (monitored over 1 h) was unchanged. Most recently, Jacob et a/. (1987) studied retention of stable 65 Cu in 11 human subjects given diets containing from 5 to 605 mg of ascorbic acid per day. Although serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activities were depressed significantly (27%) in subjects on the high-ascorbate regimen, there were no differences in serum ceruloplasmin measured immunologically, again implying no effect of the excess vitamin on copper status (at least over a three-week period).

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