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Biological and Bioenvironmental Heat and Mass Transfer by Ashim K. Datta

By Ashim K. Datta

Providing a beginning in warmth and mass shipping, this booklet covers engineering ideas of warmth and mass move. the writer discusses organic content material, context, and parameter regimes and provides sensible functions for organic and biomedical engineering, business nutrition processing, environmental keep an eye on, and waste administration. The booklet comprises end-of-chapter difficulties and sections highlighting key techniques and significant terminology It deals cross-references for simple entry to similar components and appropriate formulation, in addition to distinctive examples of delivery phenomena, and outlines of actual tactics. It covers mechanisms of diffusion, capillarity, convection, and dispersion.

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Variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is negligble 2. 69 = For a wood wall, 50 mm x W (5 − 20) [K] m · K 50 × 10−3 [m] W 207 m2 Schematic for Exam- 20 CHAPTER 2. 208 = 62 W (5 − 20) [K] m · K 50 × 10−3 [m] W m2 Comments: Because of brick’s higher thermal conductivity, the brick wall loses heat faster than the wood wall. 2. Biomaterials are often mostly water. Therefore, thermal conductivities of unfrozen wet biomaterials are often close to the values for water. 6. Dry biomaterials have a thermal conductivity much less than water (somewhat closer to air), whereas frozen biomaterials have thermal conductivity values closer to that of ice.

What is the typical temperature range below or above which cell death occurs in human tissue? 3. What has been the approximate temperature rise of the earth’s surface in the last 100 years? 4. Is the temperature sensation for a given person always over a fixed temperature range? 5. From a comfort standpoint, which one is a more critical variable—temperature or humidity? 8 Further Reading Egan, M. D. 1975. Concepts in Thermal Comfort. J. Gates, D. M. 1963. The energy environment in which we live.

The temperature rise due to the greenhouse effect has been related to increase in gases such as CO2 , methane and Chlorofluorocarbons in our atmosphere. 7 Concept and Review Questions 1. What additional information is needed beyond the knowledge of thermodynamic equilibrium to decide how long it takes for a heating or cooling process? 2. What is the typical temperature range below or above which cell death occurs in human tissue? 3. What has been the approximate temperature rise of the earth’s surface in the last 100 years?

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