By Joyce Y Wong; Joseph D Bronzino
Content material: steel biomaterials / Joon B. Park and younger Kon Kim -- Ceramic biomaterials / W.C. Billotte -- Polymeric biomaterials / Hai Bang Lee, Gilson Khang, and Jin Ho Lee -- Composite biomaterials / Roderic S. Lakes -- Biodegradable hydrogels : tailoring homes and serve as via chemistry and constitution / Andrew T. Metters and Chien-Chi Lin -- Biodegradable polymeric biomaterials : an up to date review / Chih-Chang Chu -- Biologic biomaterials : tissue-derived biomaterials (collagen) / Shu-Tung Li -- gentle tissue replacements / K.B. Chandran, K.J.L. Burg, and S.W. Shalaby -- tough tissue replacements / Sang-Hyun Park ... [et al.] -- Controlling and assessing cell-biomaterial interactions on the micro- and nanoscale : functions in tissue engineering / Jessica Kaufman, Joyce Y. Wong, and Catherine Klapperich
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Content material: metal biomaterials / Joon B. Park and younger Kon Kim -- Ceramic biomaterials / W. C. Billotte -- Polymeric biomaterials / Hai Bang Lee, Gilson Khang, and Jin Ho Lee -- Composite biomaterials / Roderic S. Lakes -- Biodegradable hydrogels : tailoring homes and serve as via chemistry and constitution / Andrew T.
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Hard tissue such as bone, dentin, and dental enamel are natural composites which contain hydroxyapatite (or a similar mineral), as well as protein, other organic materials, and water. Enamel is the stiffest hard tissue, with an elastic modulus of 74 GPa, and contains the most mineral. 7 Scanning electron micrograph (×500) of a set and hardened hydroxyaptite (HA)-cysteine composite. The small white cysteine particles can be seen on the larger HA particles. 18 GPa) contain comparatively less mineral.
ZSCAP sets and hardens on addition of water. ZSCAP particles, on implantation in bone, set and harden on contact with blood and have been used to repair experimentally induced defects in bone [Scheidler and Bajpai, 1992]. , 1993]. The powders are combined in various ratios by weight and mixed in a blender. Blocks of the mixture are then pressed in a die by means of a hydraulic press and calcined at 1100◦ C for 12 h. The calcined ceramic blocks are crushed and ground in a ball mill. The calcined ceramic is ground in a ball mill and the particles of the desired size are separated by sieving in an automatic siever.
Biomed. Mater. Res. 12: 38. 5). It is also possible to introduce various elements into the fluidized gas and co-deposit them with carbon. Usually silicon (10 to 20 w/o) is co-deposited (or alloyed) to increase hardness for applications requiring resistance to abrasion, such as heart valve discs. Recently, success was achieved in depositing pyrolitic carbon onto the surfaces of blood vessel implants made of polymers. This type of carbon is called ultra low temperature isotropic (ULTI) carbon instead of low temperature isotropic (LTI) carbon.