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Biomechanics of Diarthrodial Joints: Volume I by A. Viidik (auth.), Anthony Ratcliffe, Savio L-Y. Woo, Van C.

By A. Viidik (auth.), Anthony Ratcliffe, Savio L-Y. Woo, Van C. Mow (eds.)

Historical folklore exhibits that Asklepios (circa 900 BC), the fir~t western health care professional of historic Greece, taken care of many sufferers with rheumatic ailments of one joints ,2. Later, Hippocrates (circa four hundred BC), who claimed to have discovered from Asklepios, used the time period arthritis in connection with joint ailments: "When the sickness of arthritis moves, acute irritation and discomfort assaults the joints of the physique ... ". certainly, arthritic joint illness dates a lot farther again into antiquity than Asklepios. Many sleek anthropologists have famous degenerative joint affliction within the fossils of Neanderthal guy (archanthropus europeus petraloniensis) or even in these of dinosaurs. more moderen medical reports on joints date again to the paintings of the good English anatomist Hunter who wrote "The constitution and illnesses of Articular Cartilage" within the Philosophical Transactions of London in 1743. The idea that osteoarthritis effects from the donning away of cartilage used to be copiously documented via the histological observations of the German health professional Ecker in 1843. this concept used to be additional supported via Pommer (1927) who felt that mechanical stresses performed very important roles within the initiation and propagation of cartilage lesions resulting in osteoarthritis. This similar end used to be reached by way of the assembled extraordinary specialists at a countrywide Institutes of overall healthiness Workshop three held in 1986 .

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Further analysis of these data suggest that there might be more than one viscous component, at least one rather rapid component and another slower one. The behavior is even more complex for skin, where there seems to be an array of components, especially at lower stress values (Viidik & Quirinia unpublished data). This agrees with the concept that a proteoglycans have a pronounced influence on the viscous properties (see below the discussion on the T-jump technique), since the relative amount of proteoglycans is Sizably larger in skin than tendons and ligaments.

Influence of physical stimuli on normal tissues Physical training Physical exercise has besides the well-known local effects (for review see Viidik 1986) also systemic effects on connective tissues, both 28 Structure and Function of Tendons and Ligaments biochemical and biomechanical. g. the skin of the medial side of the upper arm as increased elastic stiffness and effectiveness (Suominen et aL 1978). Hydroxyproline concentration increases at the same time. Such an increased concentration has also been reported in trained mice (Kiiskinen & Heikkinen 1976).

Wertheim MG: Memoire sur I'elasticite et la cohesion des principaux tissus du corps humain. Chim Phys 1947;21:385-414. Woo SL-Y, Akeson WH, Arniel D, Convey FR, Matthews N: The connective tissue response to immobility: A correlative study of the biomechanical and biochemical measurements of the normal and immobilized rabbit knee. Arth and Rheum 1975;18:257-264. Woo SL-Y, Akeson WH, Jemmott GF: Measurements of nonhomogeneous directional mechanical properties of articular cartilage in tension using a videodimensional analyzer.

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