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Bioprocess Engineering. An Introductory Engineering and Life by K.G. Clarke (Auth.)

By K.G. Clarke (Auth.)

Biotechnology is an expansive box incorporating services in either the existence technology and engineering disciplines. In biotechnology, the scientist is anxious with constructing the main beneficial biocatalysts, whereas the engineer is directed in the direction of technique functionality, defining stipulations and methods that may maximize the creation strength of the biocatalyst. more and more, the synergistic impact of the contributions of engineering and existence sciences is regarded as key to the interpretation of latest bioproducts from the laboratory bench to advertisement bioprocess. basic to the winning attention of the bioprocess is a necessity for approach engineers and existence scientists efficient in comparing organic structures from a cross-disciplinary standpoint. Bioprocess engineering goals to generate middle skills via an knowing of the complementary biotechnology disciplines and their interdependence, and an appreciation of the demanding situations linked to the appliance of engineering ideas in a lifestyles technology context. preliminary chapters specialise in the microbiology, biochemistry and molecular biology that underpin biocatalyst strength for product accumulation. the next chapters advance kinetic and mass move rules that quantify optimal approach functionality and scale up. The textual content is huge in scope, in terms of bioprocesses utilizing bacterial, fungal and enzymic biocatalysts, batch, fed-batch and non-stop thoughts and loose and immobilised configurations.

  • Details the applying of chemical engineering rules for the improvement, layout, operation and scale up of bioprocesses
  • Details the data in microbiology, biochemistry and molecular biology appropriate to bioprocess layout, operation and scale up
  • Discusses the importance of those existence sciences in defining optimal bioprocess performance

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Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) was posthumously recognised as the founder of genetics, his work leading eventually to the concept of a gene. 2. Complete set of genes. 3. 6 × 106 base pairs, compared with 4 × 109 for Homo sapiens. 4. Catalysed by helicase. 5. Catalysed by DNA polymerase. 6. Complementary DNA–DNA base pairs: adenine and thiamine; cytosine and guanine. 7. mRNA forms 2% of the total RNA. 8. Catalysed by RNA polymerase. 9. In the RNA strand, uracil replaces thiamine. 10. rRNA comprise about 65 weight % of the ribosomes.

2 Nucleic acids Nucleic acids comprise chains of nucleotides joined by phosphodiester bonds. There are two types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA is formed from nucleotides containing ribose with adenine, guanine cytosine or uracil as a base. DNA is formed from nucleotides containing deoxyribose with likewise adenine, guanine and cytosine as bases but which have thiamine in place of uracil. Nucleic acids are formed by the polymerisation of the nucleotides, catalysed by DNA polymerase or RNA 36 Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 Metabolic macromolecules polymerase.

Dihydroxyacetone, fructose and sorbose. e. the hydroxyl group on the carbon furthest from the aldehyde or ketone group is configured towards the right. g. 2). In the pyranose form, the hydroxyl group on C1 can exist in either the α-form (downwards) or the β-form (upwards). 2 Conversion of D-glucose from straight chain to pyranose form Polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones are complex carbohydrates, known jointly as polysaccharides, which consist of monosaccharide chains. The shortest chains are the disaccharides, comprising only two monosaccharide units, the most common being sucrose (glucose plus fructose), lactose (glucose plus galactose) and maltose (two glucose units).

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